Technical Reports and Abstracts

Download Adobe Reader The following pages contain informative articles that have been reproduced and made available for the arboricultural community. Questions and comments can be posted on The Knothole Message Board. Some reports have been published in PDF format. If necessary, you can download the latest version of Adobe Reader.

General Information

Autumn Coloration

The autumn palette of colors, both brilliant and subdued, is one of nature’s most spectacular displays each year. What causes this awe inspiring show? Find out in this report. (Read the Report)

Armillaria Root Rot

Armillaria is a fungal disease of plant roots, and causes extensive damage to trees throughout the world. This technical report describes the disease and its effects. (Read the Report)

Hemlock Wooly Adelges

This insect pest causes the decline and death of hemlock trees throughout the eastern seaboard. Learn to recognize the insect and its damage. General recommendations for control of the pest and cultural care of the tree are included. (Read the Report)

Guidelines for Protection of Trees on Construction Sites

Construction near trees is one of the leading causes of tree loss in urban/suburban areas. Many of the losses are preventable, if the right precautions are taken. This technical report explains some of the problems associated with construction, and offers some basic guidelines for protecting trees near construction zones. (Read the Report)

Irrigation & Mulch

Many trees decline and die each year due to improper watering and mulching. More trees are killed by over watering than by drought. Improperly applied mulch can lead to decline and infection by invasive diseases of the roots and bark. Learn how to avoid some of the common mistakes. (Read the Report)

Stump Removal

Once a tree is removed, the stump remains in the ground. There are various ways to be rid of the stump (sorry, but dynamite is not one of the prescribed methods.) Find out some of the best ways to remove the stump, and the questions to ask when seeking a contractor to do the job for you. (Read the Report)

After the Storm...

This article offers some advice to both homeowners and arborists for dealing with damage to trees from storms and other injuries. Tree losses may be covered by insurance, recoverable under law or may be a deductible item for income taxes. This report suggests some of the documentation you should have to support your claim. (Read the Report)

Paulownia on The Green
Historic New Castle, Delaware

This is a sample report prepared for the City of New Castle, Delaware, concerning the condition of an old paulownia tree on The Green at the center of this historic town. (Read the Report)

Risk Analysis and Assessment of the Liberty Tuliptree
St. John's College, Annapolis, Maryland

The Liberty Tree in Annapolis, Maryland was the last survivor of the 13 original Liberty Trees, one designated in each of the original States of the United States. In September of 1999, Hurricane Floyd damaged this tree, thought to be well over 400 years old. This report describes the damage to the tree and it condition following the storm. (Download the Report [PDF file, 318 KB])

Technical Reports

Tree Appraisal: What is the Trunk Formula Method (9th Edition)?

An article by Scott Cullen, RCA, a consulting arborist from Connecticut. The article presents a discussion of the Trunk Formula tree appraisal method, and some of the ramifications of its use. (Read the Report)

Starch Testing: Lugol's stain

Trees create their own “food”, the stuff they live on, in the leaves. Photosynthesis in the leaves captures energy from the sun and stores in chemical bonds for later use. Much of that energy is stored as starch with the cells of wood and roots, and gives us a good indicator of the health of the tree and its energy reserves. The technical report describes a technique to estimate relative stored energy in the tree. (Read the Report)

Biltmore Stick

The Biltmore stick or tree scale is a measuring device. It can be used to measure the diameter of tree trunks, as well as the height of the tree. This technical report explains the basic mathematics, and how to build and use your own Biltmore stick. Simple directions are included. Use the chart, or apply the formula to customize the stick to your own specifications. (Read the Report)

Remote Distance

Arborists are sometimes asked to assess trees where they may not have permission for access. This report describes a simple method of estimating the distance to a tree (or other object) from a known point. (Read the Report)

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This page was last updated on June 11, 2003.